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Many aspiring entrepreneurs believe that a meticulously crafted business plan, filled with elaborate financial projections and flashy charts, is the key to achieving remarkable success. However, seasoned investors understand that these plans often rely more on wishful thinking than on reality. So, what do these investors truly seek? According to Harvard Business School professor William Sahlman, there are four crucial factors that determine the success of any new venture and a great business plan.

First and foremost, investors want to know about the people behind the venture—the individuals who will lead and operate it, as well as any external parties involved, such as lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. Savvy investors prioritize people because they recognize that execution skills matter the most. You must demonstrate that you possess the necessary skills, experience, and network to succeed.

The second factor is the opportunity itself—a comprehensive profile of your business, including what you plan to sell, who your target customers are, pricing strategies, and more. It is essential to discuss the competition openly. If your business plan boasts an unbeatable market position, it may come across as naïve. A good business plan acknowledges both strengths and vulnerabilities.

Context is the third critical aspect. This entails showcasing your understanding of the bigger picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, and other external factors that may impact your business. Equally important is explaining how you will respond when these external factors inevitably change.

Lastly, you must address risk and reward. Consider scenarios like a founder leaving or a sudden surge in demand. Evaluate all possible outcomes, positive and negative, and explain how your team will effectively respond. While numbers should be included in your business plan, they should primarily appear in the form of a business model, demonstrating that your team has thoroughly considered the key components of success or failure. When will the business become profitable? How will investors eventually realize returns?

A business plan that poses and answers the right questions becomes a powerful tool. By presenting such a plan, entrepreneurs can secure better deals and improve their chances of success. Remember, it’s not about constantly introducing something new; it’s about retaining cumulative advantage and connecting new advancements to what has worked in the past. Appealing to the subconscious desire for familiarity and comfort can be a winning strategy.

Steps to Writing a Business Plan

Writing a good business plan is essential for the success of your business. It serves as a roadmap, helping you define your business goals, strategies, and operations. Here are the steps to create a comprehensive business plan:

Executive Summary

  • Begin with a concise summary of your business, including its name, location, mission statement, and a brief overview of your products or services.
  • Highlight your business’s unique value proposition and what sets it apart from competitors.
  • Mention your financial needs, such as startup capital or funding requirements.

Company Description

  • Provide a detailed description of your company, its history, and its legal structure (e.g., sole proprietorship, LLC, corporation).
  • Explain the problem your business solves or the need it fulfills in the market.
  • Describe your target market, including the demographics and characteristics of your ideal customers.

Market Research

  • Conduct thorough market research to understand your industry, market trends, and your competition.
  • Include data on your target market’s size, growth potential, and buying behaviors.
  • Identify your competitors and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

Products or Services

  • Describe your products or services in detail, emphasizing their features and benefits.
  • Explain any intellectual property, patents, or proprietary technology associated with your offerings.
  • Highlight your competitive advantage and why customers should choose your business.

Marketing and Sales Strategy

  • Outline your marketing strategy, including your pricing, promotion, distribution, and advertising plans.
  • Specify your sales approach, such as your sales team structure or online sales channels.
  • Develop a customer acquisition and retention strategy.

Operations and Management

  • Provide an overview of your business’s day-to-day operations and production processes.
  • Introduce key team members, their roles, and their qualifications.
  • Discuss your organizational structure, including any partnerships or outsourcing arrangements.

Financial Projections

  • Create detailed financial projections, including income statements, cash flow statements, and balance sheets.
  • Estimate your startup costs, ongoing operating expenses, and revenue forecasts.
  • Include break-even analysis and a timeline for achieving profitability.

Funding Request (if needed)

  • If you’re seeking funding, specify the amount and type of funding you require.
  • Explain how you plan to use the funds and how they will benefit your business.
  • Provide potential investors or lenders with a clear understanding of the return on investment.


  • Include any additional information that supports your business plan, such as market research data, product/service prototypes, resumes of key team members, or legal documents.
  • Add relevant charts, graphs, and visuals to enhance understanding.

Review and Edit

  • Proofread and edit your business plan for clarity, consistency, and correctness.
  • Seek feedback from trusted advisors, mentors, or peers, and make necessary revisions.

Once you’ve completed these steps, your business plan should provide a comprehensive overview of your business and serve as a valuable tool for guiding your operations and attracting potential investors or lenders. Remember that a well-structured and well-researched business plan can greatly increase your chances of success in the business world.

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